There are 3 main tenses in English Grammar . They are present,past and future. Each divided into four grammar tenses as simple, continuous, perfect and perfect continuous. These 12 basic English Grammar Tenses will help you to learn English speaking and writing.
काळ उपयोग व रचना
Simple Present Tenseसहज सवयीने व नेहमी घडणारी क्रिया वैश्विक सत्य व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात( Simple Present Tense is used to indicate frequent occurring , present habitual action, universal truth and truth forever)
- We go to college to get knowledge.
- I watch a T. V. serial everyday.
- Sneha reads this blog regularly.
- The earth revolves around the sun.
- The sun sets in the west.
- I type a letter.
- We type letters.
- You type a letter.
- You type letters.
- He types a letter.
- She types a letter.
- They type letters.
- It saves letters.
- Manoj types a letter.
- People type letters.
Present Continuous Tense
वर्तमान स्थितीत चालु असणारी क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात(Present Continuous Tense is used to indicate the action which began some time ago , is going on and will continue for some more time.)
- I am typing an e-mail now.
- We are creating a message at present.
- They are going to Nagpur.
- They are searching a treasure.
- He is copying the notes.
- She is making cake.
- It is raining heavily.
- Manisha is running a race.
Present Perfect Tenseनुकतीच पुर्ण झालेली क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी तसेच भुतकाळात घड्लेल्य घट्नेचा परिणाम वर्तंमानस्थीतीत कायम रहात असल्यास हा काळ वापरतात(Present Perfect Tense is used to indicate the just occurred action and the one which occurred in the past but its effect continues to the present time.) Structure: sub+have/has+v3+obj/Complement
- I have drawn a circle just now
- She has completed her homework right now.
- We have passed S.S.C.
- Kapil Dev has played Cricket for 15 years.
- How long have you known him?
- The workers have completed their work in time.
- Rajesh has won the best outgoing student award.
Present Perfect Continuous Tenseवर्तमान काळात दिर्घकाळ चालु असलेली क्रीया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात Structure: sub+have/has+ been +v-ing+obj
- I have been learning English for 6 years.
- I have been living in Gadchandur since 1994.
- We have been making kites for 8 hours.
- He has been working as a clerk.
- It has been grazing since morning.
- They have been ploughing the land for two days.
- Ramesh Patil has been teaching grammar for 24 years at Mahatma Gandhi Vidyalaya.
- She has been traveling through Europe since February.
- He has been working with our company for the last five years.
- Mrs. Smita Chitade has been teaching Maths in Mahatma Gandhi Jr. College since 1989.
Simple Past Tenseघडून गेलेली क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठि हा काळ वापरतात.
- Shahajahan built the Tajmahal in memory of Mumtaj.
- Columbus discovered America.
- India got freedom in 1947.
- Valmiki wrote the Ramayan.
- She went to Kolkata yesterday.
- I took decision.
- We played cricket.
- You came late.
- He saw a tiger.
- She understood her mother very well.
- It was found.(Passive Voice)
- They read a story.
- Mayank ate oranges.
- SMS was sent by him.(Passive Voice) Struc: obj+to be+v3+by+sub.
- He did not complete his assignments.(Negative)Stru: sub+H.V. +not+ v1 + obj.
- Why did she deny that proposal? (Interrogative)Stru:Wh-word+H.V. +sub+v1+obj?
Past Continuous Tenseभुतकाळात एका विशीष्ट वेळी चालु असलेली क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात I was reading a newspaper when the phone rang. चालु असलेली क्रिया reading विशीष्ट वेळ phone rang. वरिल वाक्यात simple past आणि past continuous चे combination वापरलेले आहे. She was reading the Ramayan in the morning. Structure: Sub +was/were+ V-ing + Obj / complement.
- I was playing Kho-Kho. We were watching T.V. serial.
- You were crossing the road.
- He was swimming in the river.
- She was making chapatis in the kitchen.
- They were crossing the flooded water.
- A car was being driven by him.(Passive voice)
- A prisoner was being taken away.(Passive voice)
भुतकाळात घडलेल्या दोन घटनांपैकि जी घटना प्रथम घड्लेलि असते ती Past Perfect Tense मध्ये लिहीतात व नंतर घडलेली घटना Simple Past Tense मध्ये लिहीतात . Mother had finished cooking when father entered the kitchen.प्रथम घड्लेलि क्रिया had finished cooking नंतर घडलेली घटना father entered the kitchen Structure: Sub +had + V3 + obj/Compl.
Past Perfect Tense
- I had swept the room.
- He had played chess.
- She had learned a lesson.
- They had been praised by the governor. (Passive Voice)
- Trees had been cut. (Passive Voice)
Test On Tenses
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
भूकाळात एखादी दीर्घ काळ सुरू असलेली क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी Past Perfect Continuous Tense वापरतात.
They had been building a bridge for 20 years.
Structure : Sub + had been+ v-ing + object
1. He had been flying a kite for five hours.
2. It had been raining for 24 hours.
3. They had been riding for a week.
4. He had been batting for a day.
5. She had been singing for 12 hours.
Simple Future Tenseभविष्यात क्रिया घडेल असा भाव व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात.
- I will pass H.S.S.C next year.
- They will go to Mumbai by next train. Structure: Sub + shall/will + V1 + obj/Compl.
- We shall learn computer operating.
- He will win the Chess Championship.
- She will go to Nagpur tomorrow.
- They will arrive here by next plane.
- You will get success if you work hard. A story will be written by him. (Passive voice)
- We will be learning sums in the school tomorrow.
- She will be drawing rangoli in the morning. Structure: Sub + shall/will +be+ V-ing + obj/Compl.
- I shall be drawing a big circle.
- We shall be painting a wall.
- He will be ploughing a field.
- She will be rolling out chapatis.
- They will be singing songs.
- India will have become superpower by the year 2020.
- She will have reached Kolhapur by this time tomorrow. Structure: Sub + shall/will +have+ V3 + obj/Compl.
- You will have passed S.S.C. by June 2018
- You will have passed H.S.S.C. by June 2020.
- You will have got a degree by the year 2023.
Future Continuous Tenseभविष्यात एखादि क्रिया चालु असेल अशी कल्पना व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात.
Future Perfect Tense.भविष्यात एका विशिष्ट वेळी एखादी क्रिया पुर्ण झालेली असेल असा भाव व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात.
Identify the tense form.
1. We learnt grammar.
2. They were playing kho-kho.
3. She has inspired us.
4. We have been learning English since 2002.
5. He will call his father.
6. I will have got a degree by the year 2027.
7. It was raining heavily.
8. People are cultivating crops.
9. She had lifted a heavy bag.
10. He had been flying a kite.
11. We are sitting in the class room.
12. He earns his livelihood by selling fruits.
13 They will be running.
Do as directed
1. We learnt grammar.(Rewrite into Present Perfect Tense)
2. They were playing kho-kho.(Rewrite into Present Perfect continuous Tense)
3. She has inspired us.(Rewrite into Past Perfect Tense)
4. We have been learning English.(Rewrite into Future Perfect Tense)
5. He will call his father.(Rewrite into Past Perfect Tense)
6. I will have got a degree. (Rewrite into Present Perfect Tense)
7. It was raining heavily.(Rewrite into Past Perfect continuous Tense)
8. People are cultivating crops.(Rewrite into Future Perfect Tense)
9. She had lifted a heavy bag.(Rewrite into Present Perfect Tense)
10. He had been flying a kite.(Rewrite into Present Perfect Tense)
11. We are sitting in the class room.(Rewrite into Past Perfect continuous Tense)
12. He earns his livelihood by selling fruits.(Rewrite into Present Perfect Tense)
13 They will be running.(Rewrite into Present Perfect continuous Tense)
(1) Use the correct tense form of the verbs given in the brackets and rewrite the sentences.
(a) She………(take/takes/took/had taken) that old fashion book of her mother a few months back.
(b) She…… (pecking/ pecks/ pecked) at her left shoulder for quite some time.
(c) One human should………(done /doing/be doing) this for another always.
(d)All this…….(will be/ is/ have been) destroyed in a few years.
(e) She….(feels/felt/will be feeling) like a dressmaker’s dummy standing there.
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