Revision of Grammar

 The basic structure of all the tenses in English:

1. Simple Present: Subject + Base Form of Verb (+s/es for third person singular)

   Example: She works in a bank.

2. Present Continuous (Progressive): Subject + “to be” (am/is/are) + Verb-ing

   Example: They are playing football.

3. Present Perfect: Subject + “have/has” + Past Participle

   Example: I have finished my homework.

4. Present Perfect Continuous: Subject + “have/has been” + Verb-ing

   Example: She has been studying all night.

5. Simple Past: Subject + Past Form of Verb

   Example: He went to the store yesterday.

6. Past Continuous (Progressive): Subject + “was/were” + Verb-ing

   Example: They were sleeping when I arrived.

7. Past Perfect: Subject + “had” + Past Participle

   Example: By the time she arrived, I had already left.

8. Past Perfect Continuous: Subject + “had been” + Verb-ing

   Example: He had been working there for five years before he quit.

9. Simple Future: Subject + “will/shall” + Base Form of Verb

   Example: They will come to the party tomorrow.

10. Future Continuous (Progressive): Subject + “will be” + Verb-ing

    Example: We will be studying at this time tomorrow.

11. Future Perfect: Subject + “will have” + Past Participle

    Example: By next year, I will have graduated from university.

12. Future Perfect Continuous: Subject + “will have been” + Verb-ing

    Example: By the end of the month, he will have been working here for ten years.

Active voice  and passive voice.

 Follow these general rules to change the voice 

1. Identify the subject, verb, and object in the active voice sentence.

2. Move the object of the active voice sentence to the beginning of the passive voice sentence.

3. Use the appropriate form of the verb “to be” (am, is, are, was, were) according to the tense of the active voice sentence.

4. Use the past participle form of the main verb in the active voice sentence.

5. Optionally, include the agent (the “doer” of the action) preceded by “by” in the passive voice sentence, if it is relevant or necessary.

Here’s a breakdown with examples:

Active voice: The cat chased the mouse.

Passive voice: The mouse was chased by the cat.

Active voice: They are building a new house.

Passive voice: A new house is being built by them.

Active voice: Someone stole my bicycle.

Passive voice: My bicycle was stolen (by someone).

Active voice: She will finish the project tomorrow.

Passive voice: The project will be finished by her tomorrow.

Active voice: The teacher gave the students a test.

Passive voice: The students were given a test by the teacher.

3. Direct and Indirect Speech

To change direct speech (quoted speech) into indirect speech (reported speech), follow these basic rules:

1. Change Pronouns and Verb Tenses:

   – Change the pronouns and possessive adjectives to reflect the perspective of the speaker in the indirect speech.

   – Adjust the verb tenses according to the context and the time frame relative to the reporting verb.

2. Introduction of Reporting Verbs:

   – Introduce the indirect speech with an appropriate reporting verb such as “said,” “told,” “asked,” etc.

3. Changes in Time and Place Expressions:

   – Adjust time expressions to reflect the shift from the original statement to the reported statement, if necessary.

   – Modify place expressions if they are relevant to the context.

4. Changes in Modal Verbs and Adverbs:

   – Modify modal verbs (can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must) and adverbs to reflect the speaker’s attitude, possibility, or certainty.

5. Punctuation Changes:

   – Use commas and conjunctions (that, if) to introduce the reported speech.

Here’s an example of direct speech transformed into indirect speech:

Direct speech: “I am going to the library,” she said.

Indirect speech: She said (that) she was going to the library.

In this example, the pronoun “I” changes to “she,” the present continuous tense “am going” changes to the past continuous tense “was going,” and the reporting verb “said” is used to introduce the indirect speech. Additionally, the comma before the quotation marks is replaced by a period, and the comma within the quotation marks is removed.

4. Degrees of Comparison

To change a superlative degree into comparative and positive degrees, you can follow these general rules:

1. Comparative Degree from Superlative

   – Remove the suffix “-est” from the adjective.

   – Add the comparative suffix “-er” to form the comparative degree.

2. Positive Degree from Superlative:

   – Remove the suffix “-est” from the adjective.

Here are some examples to illustrate the conversion:

Superlative Degree: 

– “He is the tallest boy in the class.”

Comparative Degree:  

– “He is taller than any other boy in the class.”

Positive Degree:  

– “No other boy is as tall as he.”

In the conversion, “tallest” becomes “taller” for the comparative degree, and “tall” for the positive degree by removing the superlative suffix “-est.”

5. Exclamatory and Assertive

To convert between exclamatory and assertive sentences, as well as between affirmative and negative sentences, you can follow these rules:

Exclamatory to Assertive (and vice versa):

1. Exclamatory to Assertive:

   – Remove any exclamation marks (!) and rephrase the sentence to make it a statement.

   – Adjust the word order if necessary.


   – Exclamatory: What a beautiful day it is!

   – Assertive: It is a very beautiful day.

2. Assertive to Exclamatory:

   – Add an exclamation mark (!) at the end of the sentence.

   – Adjust the word order if necessary to create a more emphatic or exclamatory tone.


   – Assertive: The day was terrific.

   – Exclamatory: How terrific the day was!

6. Affirmative to Negative (and vice versa):

1. Affirmative to Negative:

   – Add the negative word (not) or a negative word (such as “never,” “no one,” “nothing,” etc.) before the main verb or auxiliary verb.

   – Adjust other parts of the sentence as necessary.


   – Affirmative: She is brave.

   – Negative: She is not a coward.

2. Negative to Affirmative:

   – Remove the negative word (not) or negative words from the sentence.

   – Adjust other parts of the sentence as necessary to maintain grammatical correctness.


   – Negative: I don’t like chocolate.

   – Affirmative: I dislike chocolate.

7. As soon as/No sooner……..than

When replacing “as soon as” with “no sooner…than,” follow these guidelines:

1. “As soon as” Structure: “As soon as” is used to indicate that something happens immediately after something else.

   Example: “He left as soon as the meeting ended.”

2. “No sooner…than” Structure: “No sooner…than” is used to emphasize that one event happens immediately before another event.

   Example: “No sooner did the meeting end than he left.”

In this transformation:

– Place “no sooner” at the beginning of the sentence.

– Follow it with the auxiliary verb or main verb inversion, i.e., “auxiliary verb (do, does, did etc)” before the subject.

– Use “than” to introduce the event that happens immediately after.

So, the transformation of the example sentence would be: “No sooner did the meeting end than he left.”

8. Not only…….but also

When replacing “as well as” with “not only…but also,” you switch to a more formal and structured form. Here’s how to do it:

1. “As well as” Structure: “As well as” is used to add additional information or elements to a sentence without indicating any particular emphasis.

   Example: “She enjoys swimming as well as hiking.”

2. “Not only…but also” Structure: “Not only…but also” is used to emphasize two parallel elements, indicating that both are significant or noteworthy.

   Example: “She not only enjoys swimming but also hiking.”

In this transformation:

– Start with “not only.”

– Follow it with the first element (in this case, “enjoys swimming”).

– Use “but also” to introduce the second element (in this case, “hiking”).

So, the transformation of the example sentence would be: “She not only enjoys swimming but also hiking.”

9. If…not/Unless

When replacing “unless” with “if…not,” you’re essentially restructuring the sentence to convey the same meaning. Here’s how to do it:

1. “Unless” Structure: “Unless” is used to express a condition that must be fulfilled for something else to happen.

   Example: “You won’t pass the exam unless you study.”

2. “If…not” Structure:** “If…not” is used to express a condition where the outcome depends on the absence of another condition.

   Example: “You won’t pass the exam if you do not study.”

In this transformation:

– Start with “if.”

– Follow it with “not” and then the condition.

– Ensure that the negative condition mirrors the original meaning of “unless.”

So, the transformation of the example sentence would be: “You won’t pass the exam if you do not study.”

10 Frame wh Questions

To frame a “wh-” question to get the underlined part as an answer, you need to identify the relevant part of the statement and then construct a question starting with a question word like “who,” “what,” “when,” “where,” “why,” or “how.” Here’s how you can do it:

Original statement: “She went to the store yesterday.”

Underlined part: “Yesterday”

Wh-question: “When did she go to the store?”

In this example, the question word “when” is used to inquire about the time frame, and the underlined part “yesterday” is the answer to the question.

Here are a few more examples:

Original statement: “He ate pizza for dinner.”

Underlined part: “Pizza”

Wh-question: “What did he eat for dinner?”

Original statement: “They are playing football in the park.”

Underlined part: “In the park”

Wh-question: “Where are they playing football?”

Original statement: “She visited her grandmother last month.”

Underlined part: “Her grandmother”

Wh-question: “Who did she visit last month?”

By framing “wh-” questions in this manner, you can obtain the underlined part of the statement as an answer.

11 Gerund and Infinitive

To replace a gerund with an infinitive or vice versa, you need to understand the difference in their usage and structure.

Gerunds are verb forms ending in “-ing” that function as nouns in a sentence. They can be used as subjects, objects, or complements.

Infinitives are the base form of a verb preceded by “to” (e.g., to walk, to eat) and can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

Here’s how you can replace a gerund with an infinitive or vice versa:

Replacing a Gerund with an Infinitive:


– Gerund: “She enjoys swimming.”

– Infinitive: “She enjoys to swim.” (


– Infinitive: “He likes to read books.”

– Gerund: “He likes reading books.”

12 Modal Auxiliaries

Here are the most common modal auxiliary verbs and their typical usage:

1. Can: Indicates ability,    – Ability: “She can speak French fluently.”

2. Could: Similar to “can,” but often used for past ability, polite requests, or hypothetical situations.

   – Past Ability: “When I was young, I could run very fast.”

   – Polite Request: “Could you please pass the salt?”

   – Hypothetical: “If I had more time, I could finish the project.”

3. May: Indicates permission, possibility

   – Permission: “You may leave the room now.”

   – Possibility: “It may rain later.”

4. Might: Indicates Probability,    

Probability: “It might snow tomorrow.”

5. Must: Indicates obligation, compulsion.

   – Obligation: “You must wear a seatbelt in the car.”

6. Should:Indicates advice,   

Advice: “You should study for the exam.”

7. Would (used to): Often used to indicate hypothetical situations, polite requests, or habits in the past.

   – Hypothetical: “If I won the lottery, I would travel the world.”

   – Polite Requests: “Would you mind closing the door?”

   – Habits in the Past: “When I was a child, I would go fishing every weekend.”

13 Articles

1. Definite Article (“the”):

   – Specificity: “The” is used before singular or plural nouns when the speaker and listener both know exactly what is being referred to.

     Example: “I saw the dog in the park.” (Both speaker and listener know which dog is being referred to.)

   – Unique Nouns: It is used before singular nouns that refer to something unique.

     Example: “The sun rises in the east.”

   – Superlatives: It is used before superlative adjectives or adverbs to indicate the highest degree.

     Example: “She is the tallest girl in the class.”

   – Ordinal Numbers: It is used before ordinal numbers to denote a specific position in a sequence.

     Example: “She won the first prize.”

2. Indefinite Article (“a” and “an”):

   – Non-specificity: “A” (before consonant sounds) or “an” (before vowel sounds) is used before singular countable nouns when the speaker does not specify which one.

     Example: “I saw a dog in the park.” (The listener does not know which dog.)

   – First Mention: It is used when mentioning something for the first time.

     Example: “She bought a new car yesterday.”

   – Class or Type: It is used to refer to any member of a class or type.

     Example: “A dog is a faithful animal.”

   – Amounts and Rates: It can be used to refer to an unspecified quantity or rate.

     Example: “A cup of coffee, please.”

It’s important to note that “a” is used before consonant sounds, while “an” is used before vowel sounds. Additionally, the choice between using “a” or “an” depends on the sound at the beginning of the following word, not necessarily the letter itself.

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