8 Kinds of Pronoun
“A pronoun is a word that we use instead of a noun”
Basically there are 8 kinds of pronouns in English Language and Grammar.
Many people commit grammatical mistakes because they lack thorough knowledge regarding the uses of pronouns. It is, therefore, essential to have a detailed discussion on all 8 Kinds of pronouns to avoid errors in their usage.
KINDS OF PRONOUNS
A pronoun which is used instead of the name of a person is known as a ‘Personal Pronoun. A list of the ‘Personal Pronouns’ is given below: I, my, mine, me; we, our, ours, us.
(First Person) (Second Person)
You, your, yours.
He, his, him, she, her, hers, it, its,
they, their, theirs, them.
When self is added to my, your, him, her, it and selves to our, your, them, we get Compound Personal Pronouns.
Reflexive Pronoun: When the action done by the subject turns back upon the subject , they are called reflexive Pronoun. For example:
You injure yourself.
2. She injured herself.
3. They hurt themselves.
When Compound Personal Pronouns are used to give emphasis they are called Emphatic Pronouns. Following examples will make this point clear.
1. I will do it myself.
2. You yourself can best explain.
3. They themselves admitted their guilt.
(a) Demonstrative Pronouns. Pronouns used to point out the objects to which they refer are called Demonstrative
1. This is a present from my uncle.
2. These are merely excuses.
3. Bombay mangoes are better than those of Bangalore.
All pronouns which refer to persons or things in a general way and do not refer to any particular person or thing are called Indefinite Pronouns.
1. Somebody has stolen my watch.
2. Few escaped unhurt.
3. Did you ask anybody to come?
Each, either, neither are called distributive pronouns because they refer to persons or things one at a time. For this reason they are always singular and followed by the verb in singular.
Examples: 1. Each of the men received a reward.
2. These men received each a reward.
3. Either of you can go.
4. Neither of the accusations is true.
A relative pronoun refers or relates to some noun going before, which is called its Antecedent.
1. I met Hari who used to live here.
2. I have found the pen which I had lost.
3. Here is the book that you lent me.
These pronouns, are used for asking questions. Examples:
1. Whose book is this?
2. What will all the neighbours say? 3. Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?
Note: Interrogative pronouns can also be used in asking indirect questions. Consider the following examples:
1. I asked who was speaking.
2. Tell me what you have done.
3. Say which you would like best.
USAGE OF THE PRONOUNS : AGREEMENT WITH VERB
Please study the following observations carefully : 1. If three pronouns (of different persons) are used together in the same sentence they are arranged in the following order:
(a) You, he and I must help that poor woman.
(b) You, he and I are students.
2. When three pronouns (of different persons) are used together in the same sentence and the sentence confesses a guilt or flaw then they should be arranged in the following order:
First person pronoun, Second person, Third person
(a) We, you and they were absent.
1. I, you and he are to blame.
3. When two or more singular nouns are joined by and, the pronoun used for them should be plural.
(a) Mohan and Sohan are friends. They play football.They live at Lajpat Nagar.
(b) Mala and Sangita are class-fellows. They are good friends.
4. But if these nouns joined by ‘and’ refer to the same person or thing, the pronoun used should be singular. Examples:
(a) Mr. Keshvani, my friend and principal of the college, is known for his good behaviour.
(b) Delhi, the beautiful city and the Capital of India, is famous for its historical monuments.
5. When two singular nouns joined by and refer to the same person, or thing, the pronoun used should be singular.
Example: The manager and owner of the firm expressed his views on the demands of the workers. (One person-Two portfolios)
6. When two singular nouns joined by and refer to two different persons the pronoun used for them should also be plural. Example:
The party chief and the Prime Minister expressed their views on the topic.
Two persons-The party chief and the Prime Minister. Note: An easy way to understand points 5 and 6. If both nouns are preceded by ‘the’, the pronoun used should be plural and if only the first noun is preceded by ‘the’, the
pronoun used will be singular.
7. When two nouns are used with as well as, the pronoun
agrees with the first subject.
(a) Mohan as well as his friends is doing his work. (b) The students as well as their teachers are doing their work.
8. When two singular nouns joined by ‘and’ are preceded by each or every, the pronoun used must be singular and should agree in gender with the second noun. Examples:
(a) Every man and every woman will do her best for the nation.
(b) Each boy and each girl went to her house. 9. When two nouns are joined by using ‘with’, the pronou agrees with the noun coming before ‘with’. Examples:
(a) The boy with his parents has gone to see a movie.
(b) The children with their parents have gone to picnic.
10. When two different nouns are joined by either… or; neither… nor, the pronoun is used according to the numb and gender of the second noun.
(a) Either your sister or you have done your work. (b) Neither the students nor the teacher was in his class.
11. The pronoun coming after ‘than’ must be in the same case as that coming before ‘than’. Examples:
(a) She plays better than I.
(b)His elder brother is more intelligent than he.
12. Many a’ always takes a singular pronoun and singular verb.
Many a soldier has met his death in the battlefield.